2 Mega-Pixel with ISD Technology 21.3" Monochrome Display with resolution of 6 mega sub-pixels for advanced image quality. (Model: MS21i2)

2 Mega-Pixel with ISD Technology 21.3" Monochrome Display with resolution of 6 mega sub-pixels for advanced image quality. (Model: MS21i2)

2 Mega-Pixel with ISD Technology 21.3" Monochrome Display with resolution of 6 mega sub-pixels for advanced image quality. (Model: MS21i2)

MS21i2
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Medical image display with resolution of 6 mega sub-pixels for advanced image quality
TOTOKU introduces the new, affordable MS21i2, a unique display that achieves 6M ISD resolution, utilizing a 2MP panel and our unique subpixel-drive technology. By utilizing our revolutionary subpixel drive technology, the MS21i2 provides comparatively the same resolution as a 6 MP display, without the extra costs typically associated with higher resolution displays.

Features

High resolution of 6M sub-pixels realized by ISD technology
15M ISD resolution with a pixel pitch of 55μm
Faithful Reproduction of Image Details
While a pixel pitch of 2MP display is 270µm, MS21i2 achieves 90µm in sub-pixel chain direction by newly developed ISD technology to realize excellent depiction of image details.



Advanced Image Quality with Less Degradation
To display an overall image whose native resolution is higher than the monitor is able to reproduce, the image is converted to a lower resolution image with a certain amount of data loss.
The MS21i2 with high resolution offers excellent image reproduction, faithful to the original captured by the modality device with less image degradation.

ISD (Independent Sub-pixel Drive) Technology
Driven by each sub-pixel value corresponding to detailed information recorded in an original image, three times resolution enhancement is achieved. (Patent pending) In addition, up to 1276 shades of gray are now simultaneously displayable by the upgraded ISD technology.
*Customized viewer software is required to display images with enhanced resolution by the ISD technology.

ISD Technology
As imaging technology advances, modality devices are reproducing such high resolution that even current 5MP displays are unable to reproduce, creating a bottleneck in softcopy diagnostic environment. ISD (Independent Sub-pixels Drive) technology* to accept higher resolution output from modality devices as a major breakthrough. *Patent pending
*Customized viewer software is required to display images with enhanced resolution by the ISD technology.

Features
  • Pixel pitch of one-third in horizontal direction (the sub-pixel chain direction) actualizes the accurate depiction of the images.
  • The faithful image depiction to its original with less image degradation is realized.
  • Image quality is significantly improved without changing the pixel structure of conventional displays, and it does not have any adverse impact on luminance and contrast characteristics.
  • Simultaneous display of 1276 shades of gray
Log-awaited resolution enhancement of displays:
Resolution of modality devices has already achieved a pixel size of approximately 25 to 100μm and a pixel number of 4 to 67 mega-pixels (MP). However, even 5MP displays with 165μm that can provide the current maximum resolution, still do not have enough resolution properties to meet the modality devices’ resolution.
 

Table1 Resolution of major mammo systems and a 5MP display

Mammo system
Pixel size(μm)
Resolution (ピクセル)
A
50
3540 × 4740  16.77MP
B
25
7080 × 9480  67.12MP
C
100
1914 × 2294  4.39MP
D
70
2560 × 3328  8.52MP
5MP Display
165
2048 × 2560  5.24MP


When an image is captured by a modality device, most times the native resolution is higher than the monitor is able to reproduce. Consequently, either the overall image is converted to a lowerresolution image with reduced quality, which is executed by viewer software (sub-sampling processing) or only a portion of the image is depicted with the original resolution. Fig.1 shows that the overall image is depicted on the display by only 31% of the information contained in the original image.


Fig.1 Depiction image when an original image consists of more pixels than
a display in full-screen. It is reduced to only 31% of the original.

 
Independent Sub-pixel Drive (ISD) technology:
A monochrome display has a large number of pixel elements and each pixel element consists of three sub-pixels, which are driven as one pixel in conventional monochrome displays. Newly developed technology, Independent Sub-pixel Drive (ISD) composed of a display that comes with the ISD algorithm and special viewer software enables each sub pixel to be driven independently, and consequently MS51i2 provides superior, lossless image reproduction.

Fig. 2 shows mechanism of resolution enhancement by the ISD and comparison of captured images on a conventional display and a display with ISD technology. By the ISD function, the image is depicted more accurately.

Fig.2 Mechanism of ISD and comparison of the images of three fine lines

 
Improvement of image quality:

Fig. 3 and 4 show captured images on a conventional 5MP LCD and MS51i2 that was developed out of a conventional 5MP LCD with ISD technology. The depiction detail was grately improved on MS51i2 and Fig. 4 shows its excellent depiction ability of the micro calcifications, especially the edges.

Fig. 5 shows the comparison of measured MTFs of the conventional 5MP LCD and the MS51i2 that employ the same LCD panels of 5MP. As shown in the graph, the MTF of MS51i2 was improved obviously by the ISD function.

Furthermore, comparative evaluations performed by radiologists substantiated the clinical benefits of the MS51i2 over the conventional 5MP LCD.



 

While image quality of the medical displays such as luminance, contrast, viewing angle, and grayscale features has been improved, resolution enhancement was not actualized because of its cost.
From the physical measurements and perceptual comparisons, this new resolution enhancement technology by the ISD, which actualizes excellent depiction ability inexpensively, would be very important in softcopy diagnostic environment.



Special AR coating
Totoku's new *Special AR Coating technology addresses properties of focus, noise reduction, contrast, and viewing angle achieving film-like black and accurate reproduction of images. In this paper, we describe its features and physical measurement results.
*Patent pending

Conventional LCD surface treatment
To reduce background appearances on the screen by reflection, the surface of medical displays is generally Anti- Glare (AG) coated. However, the AG coating causes focus loss due to diffused reflection and increased noise because of the diffused light that overlaps with the displayed images. For this reason, some displays used in diagnostic imaging require such finite depiction, that radiologists prefer a non- AG coated display, sacrificing reflective benefits, but gaining a crisper image.
Proper focus and noise properties conflict with reduction of specular reflection, and a development of an LCD surface treatment that meets the both demand was desired.



Table1 Mechanism and features of each LCD surface treatment
*The images explain general ideas of each mechanism and may be different from the actual structures.

AG coating
AG + AR filter
Special AR coating
AG(アンチグレア)処理
AG + ARフィルター
特殊ARコート
Beads of about 4µm in diameter diffusely reflect the light to reduce background appearances mirrored on the screen. However, transmitted light (Displayed image) is also diffusely reflected causing focus loss and increased noise.
An AR filter is attached indirectly to an AG-coated LCD panel across the layer of air. This improves contrast ratio of images.
The special AR coating reduces diffuse reflection and improves properties of noise, focus, contrast and viewing angle.
 

Special AR Coating

The special Anti-Reflection (AR) coating is a surfacetreatment that provides AR layers directly on a LCD panel as shown in Table 1.
Fig. 1 shows comparison of micro bright points displayed on the special AR-coated LCD and the AG-coated LCD. Due to the reduced diffused reflection by the special AR coating, the bright point is displayed more clearly with the improved focus and contrast compared to the one on the AG-coated LCD.

Fig.1 Illustration of the displayed micro bright points

 
Physical measurement results of the display properties
Table 2 shows physical measurement results of the display properties. The special AR-coating obtained the best results in the three surface treatments for all the measurement items except for the specular reflection (Rs).
Table2 Measurement results in each surface treatment
Surface
treatment
Focus(MTF)
Max. luminance
(Dark room)
Min. luminance
(Lighted room)
Contrast ratio
Reflection coefficient
*Viewing angle (Left - Right)
H
V
Dark room
Lighted room
Rs (Specular)
Rd (Diffuse)
Dark
room
Lighted
room
Special
AR coating
105
104
105
107
117
110
90
257
60°

60°
80°

80°
AG + AR filter
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100


10°
60°

60°
AG coating
99.7
98.3
99.2
-
91.2
-
113
94.7
-
60°

60°

Note:
• A 3MP display was used in the measurement
• The measurement was performed in a relative manner where AG + AR filter is 100.
   (The bigger values indicate the better properties.)
*The viewing angle was measured in accordance with AAPM TG18.
   (The specified viewing angles indicate where the contrast ratio of over 170 is achieved.)



Fig.2 Noise characteristics (NPS characteristics)
The noise level of the special AR coating is lower than the AG coating.



Fig.3 Focus (MTF characteristics)
The special AR coating achieved the higher focus properties than the AG coating.

 
Specular reflection characteristics
Fig. 4 shows photographs of each LCD with 4 different surface treatments reflecting the background in the lighted room. Fig. 5 shows image analysis of the photographs in Fig. 4. The X-axis represents the horizontal direction in the photographs and the Y-axis represents relative luminance.
A piece of white paper was placed in front of the surface of each LCD panel to take a photo of its appearance on the screen by reflection.
Although the paper edge appears more clearly on the special AR-coated LCD than the AG-coated LCD or the AG-coated LCD with the AR filter, as shown in Fig. 5, relative luminance of the special AR-coated LCD is lowest. Conversely, the white paper appears most clearly on the mirror-shiny surface of the *Glare type LCD, and its relative luminance is the highest of all LCDs.
*Non-AG-coated LCD panel to improve the noise and the focus properties.

Fig.4 Comparison of the background reflected on the screen in the lighted room

Fig. 5 Graph of the photograph analysis

 
Conclusion:
The special AR-coating obtained the best results in the three surface treatments for all the testing items except for the specular reflection (Rs). Although the reflection coefficient in the specular reflection is slightly lower than the others, as shown in Fig. , the special AR-coated LCD achieves the lowest relative luminance of the reflected image.
For these reasons, it was indicated that the special AR-coating is the surface treatment best suited for medical displays.


Simultaneous display of 1276 shades of gray Simultaneous display of 1276 shades of gray
Realizes smoother grayscale display required for medical image displays.





Newly developed luminance stabilizing system λ-Sentinel II New luminance stabilizing system λ-Sentinel II
λ-Sentinel II consists of a luminance sensor and luminance control circuit. The luminance sensor, integrated into the front bezel, consistently monitors and accurately stabilizes luminance on the screen by rapidly communicating with the backlight sensor.
In addition, a build-in luminance sensor provided with i2 models enables even simpler calibration without attaching the calibration sensor.


Luminance stabilizing system to provides continuous stable display for medical images

A change in luminance affects gamma characteristics and therefore has adverse effects on diagnostic imaging. TOTOKU'smedical image displays are equipped with a luminance stabilizing system that automatically compensates for luminance changes due to startup drift, temperature change, and aging.

Luminance stabilizing system λ-Sentinel

λ-Sentinel II Luminance stabilizing system λ-Sentinel II

λ-Sentinel II consists of a luminance sensor and a luminance control circuit. The luminance sensor attached in front of the screen constantly monitors and accurately stabilizes luminance on the screen surface by sending feedback to the control circuit.

Newly developed luminance stabilizing system λ-Sentinel IILuminance sensor
Features
  • With luminance fluctuation caused by the LCD module taken into account, highly accurate luminance control is achieved.
  • Actual luminance measurements including intermediate luminance are taken on the screen surface.
  • Build-in luminance sensor provided with i2 models enables even simpler calibration without attaching the calibration sensor.

Note: λ-Sentinel II module is built into the the ME/CCL Series i model displays. Other models are equipped with λ-Sentinel (TOTOKU's conventional system).


Remote grayscale check and remote calibration functions
Conformance testing to DICOM GSDF and calibration can be remotely accomplished. These features minimize the burden on display administrators.
* Optional PM Medivisor software is required.

Auto remoto grayscale conformance evaluation
Combined with TOTOKU’s performance monitoring software PM Medivisor, grayscale conformance to DICOM according to AAPM TG18 can be checked automatically and remotely.

  • PM Medivisor’s scheduling function activates periodic auto-evaluation.
  • The test runs as a background process. Thus it can be carried out even when the display is in use.
  • Results are available graphically for easy review and are centrally managed by PM Medivisor.

Remote calibration capability
The remote calibration feature is added to reduce the burden on system administrators. Calibration of remote displays canbe accomplished from a management terminal.

  • Execution of calibration using the built-in luminance sensor.
  • Results are centrally managed by PM Medivisor.


* Remote calibration is available when "i2 model" is used along with PM Medvisor Ver. 4.0 and above.

Luminance equalizer λ-Uniformity Congruence) Luminance equalizer λ-Uniformity Congruence
Is built in to achieve highly accurate luminance uniformity across the screen. Luminance unevenness is minimized in the final tune-up prior to shipping.
* Images shown are for illustrative purposes only.


Calibrates luminance and gamma to enable smooth grayscale display that is faithful to DICOM GSDF.Calibration function
Calibrates luminance and gamma to enable smooth grayscale display that is faithful to DICOM GSDF.
* Optional calibration kit is required.

Calibration function to accurately adjust gamma, color temperature, and luminance
Medical image displays are commonly required to display grayscale according to the Grayscale Standard Display Function (GSDF) defined by DICOM Part 14. The calibration function creates the optimum conditions for a medical imaging display by adjusting luminance levels, color temperature, and grayscale characteristics to achieve DICOM GSDF compliant grayscale output.

Models supported: All ME/CCL Series models, except ME183L and CCL192 plus
Note: Calibration requires an optional calibration kit*

How it works
The calibration function corrects the driving level of the LUT (Look-up Table), a memory that specifies the LCD driving, and writes it in the LUT. In other words, calibration adjusts grayscale characteristics, color temperature (color displays only), and luminance.

The luminance for each driving level is corrected such that the resulting curve matches the DICOM GSDF achieving smooth grayscale output.

The luminance for each driving level is corrected such that the resulting curve match the DICOM GSDF and smooth grayscale is achieved.

Graph is for explanatory purpose only.


* Calibration kit (optional)
Package contents
  • Calibration software: Medivisor for i2 Series, Medivisor Grayscale, Medivisor Color, Medivisor for ME201L/ME181L
  • QA Medivisor
  • Utility Software for i2 Series
  • GSDF Checker
  • Luminance sensor


Hardware based pivot function to enable high speed drawing in portrait orientation
The pivot function allows for a 90-degree rotation of the LCD panel into portrait orientation. Unlike other pivoting functions that are implemented using graphics cards and/or that require special software, TOTOKU's hardware pivot function is directly implemented in display hardware, and thus it is much faster with less noise.


OSD Information Display OSD Information Display
With a push of a button, the display's current status can be checked such as the display model, total operating time, actual measurement of luminance, and calibration settings.



LED indicator to inform of current statusLED indicator to inform of current status
A glance at the LED indicator tells you the display's current operating status in three distinct colors. When in normal mode (luminance is stabilized), the LED is not lighted to minimize negatively impacting the diagnostic interpretation.


LED Indicator to inform of current status
Models supported All i2 and i models


Enhanced convenience with utility software:
Advanced power saving*

The backlight dims as the screensaver starts, reducing power consumption and preventing unnecessary deterioration of the backlight.
* This feature may not be available, depending on the specifications of the graphics card used.

Gamma check
18 points of luminance values are measured and plotted into a graph.
Ambient light and display luminance measurement
The built-in sensors measure display luminance and ambient illuminance.


Pairing service to match display colors (Optional)
Due to the variation in colors among cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFL) used as backlights, slight differences in color tone between displays are unavoidable. Medical imaging often uses two displays side-by-side, and it is very important that they present
TOTOKU offers a display pairing service that match colors of two displays using a high-definition spectrophotometer before shipping.

Models supported: All monochrome medical image displays

* Consult your dealer for more information about the pairing service.


Pairing service to match colors of displays


Worldwide medical safety standards Worldwide medical safety standards
This display is certified under various medical safety standards that are much more demanding than those for general-purpose IT equipment.



Specifications

Model Name MS21i2
LCD Panel Technology 21.3-inch, Monochrome, TFT active matrix IPS Technology
Display Area 432mm x 324mm
Pixel Pitch 0.270mm x 0.270mm
Contrast Ratio 700:1 (typ)
Maximum Luminance 1800cd/m² (typ), (calibrated to 410cd/m²)
Viewing Angle 170° horizontal and vertical (typ)
Visual Performance Available Resolution USTEXT, 640X480(VGA), 800X600(SVGA), 1024X768(XGA), 1280X1024(SXGA), 4800 (1600 X 3) sub-pixel X 1200pixel
*MS21i2 supports 6M-ISD and 2M-normal modes.
To use MS21i2 in 6M-ISD mode, customized viewer software is required.
Grayscale 3061 shades of gray to 256 shades of gray
Simultaneous display of 1276 shades of gray is possible with the customized viewer.
Input Signal Input Sync Signal DVI 1.0 compliant
Plug and Play DDC2B compliant
Input Power Supply Input AC Adapter 100V-240V (±10%) 50/60Hz
Maximum Power Consumption 85W (typ), (with power management feature)
Features Calibration Control Luminance, Gamma, Capability of saving 3 sets of LUT settings (An optional calibration kit is required.)
OSD Information Display Model name, Serial No., Total operating time, Calibration settings (Operating time from Last Calibration, Luminance, Gamma, etc.), Current luminance, etc.
USB Hub USB Rev. 2.0 compliant, Self-powered
USB upstream connector (x1), USB downstream connector (x2)
Other Features Luminance Uniformity Correction Function, Hardware Pivot function, LED indicator
Standards UL60601-1, CSA C22.2 No. 601.1, MDD/CE, FDA510(k), FCC-B, VCCI-B
Physical Characteristics Dimensions (WxHxD) Landscape : 474.0 (W) X 468.4 / 529.9 (H) X 220.0 (D) mm
Portrait : 367.0 (W) X 521.9 / 583.4 (H) X 220.0 (D) mm
Weight Net: approx. 10.8kg, Without tiltstand: approx. 6.6kg
Tilt Stand Tilt, Swivel, Portrait / Landscape
Mount 100mm VESA compliant
Security Slot On the back of the panel and the tilt stand
LCD surface treatment Special AR coating
Accessories AC adapter, Power cord (3P), DVI cable, USB cable, User manual
 

Dimensions

MS21i2